The EU and the UK reach a provisional agreement on citizens` rights and the financial terms of Brexit. The UK government and the remaining 27 EU member states accept the draft agreement. Boris Johnson signed the Brexit withdrawal agreement in Downing Street. The United Kingdom and the European Union reached an agreement at the European Council on the withdrawal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from the European Union. The revised Withdrawal Agreement and the Political Declaration were discussed and approved at the European Council on 17 October 2019. Prime Minister Boris Johnson wins the British general election. It is therefore likely that the Brexit agreement will be adopted soon. If the UK Parliament approves the deal, the European Parliament will be able to vote on it in January. The new relationship will only become clear when the negotiations are concluded, at the end of the transition period. The new agreements will enter into force after the transitional period, which ends on 31 December 2020.
EU countries must first accept these new agreements. If the UK and the EU fail to reach an agreement, there will be a no-deal Brexit. This will happen at the end of the transition period. The agreement covers issues such as money, civil rights, border regulations and dispute settlement. It also includes a transition period and an overview of the future relationship between the UK and the EU. It was published on 14 November 2018 and was the result of the Brexit negotiations. The agreement was approved by the heads of state and government of the remaining 27 EU countries and the British government of Prime Minister Theresa May, but met with resistance in the British Parliament, whose approval was required for ratification. The consent of the European Parliament would also have been required. On 15 January 2019, the House of Commons rejected the Withdrawal Agreement by 432 votes to 202.  The House of Commons again rejected the agreement on March 12, 2019 by 391 votes to 242 and rejected it a third time on March 29, 2019 by 344 votes to 286.
On October 22, 2019, the revised withdrawal agreement negotiated by Boris Johnson`s government took the first step in Parliament, but Johnson suspended the legislative process when the accelerated approval program failed to find the necessary support, announcing his intention to call a general election.  On the 23rd. In January 2020, Parliament ratified the agreement by adopting the Withdrawal Agreement Act; On 29 January 2020, the European Parliament gave its consent to the Withdrawal Agreement. It was then finalised by the Council of the European Union on 30 January 2020. EU leaders will approve a postponement of the Brexit date to 31 January 2020 or earlier if the UK and European Parliaments have already approved the withdrawal agreement. On Friday, the document crossed the Channel aboard a Eurostar train after being signed in Brussels by European Council President Charles Michel and European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen. Immediately after the announcement of a revised withdrawal agreement on 17 October 2019, Labour, the Liberal Democrats and the DUP declared that they could not support the new agreement.  With regard to the Irish border issue, there is a Northern Ireland Protocol (hereinafter referred to as the “backstop”) annexed to the Agreement, which sets out an alternative position that will only enter into force if no other effective arrangement can be demonstrated before the end of the transition period.
If this happens, the UK will follow the EU`s common external tariff and Northern Ireland will retain some aspects of the single market until such a demonstration is achieved. None of the parties can unilaterally withdraw from this customs union. The aim of this backstop agreement is to avoid a “hard” border in Ireland where customs controls are necessary.  The European Union and the United Kingdom approved the Withdrawal Agreement. The British Parliament and the European Parliament have yet to approve the Withdrawal Agreement. The 2019 revisions also adapted elements of the Political Declaration by replacing the word “appropriate” with “appropriate” in relation to labour standards. According to Sam Lowe, Trade Fellow at the Centre for European Reform, the change excludes labour standards from dispute resolution mechanisms.  In addition, the level playing field mechanism has moved from the legally binding Withdrawal Agreement to the Political Declaration and the line in the Political Declaration that “the UK will consider aligning itself with EU legislation in relevant areas” has been deleted.  After the British House of Lords approved the European Union Act (Withdrawal Agreement) on January 22, the act received Royal Assent from the Queen. The European Parliament approved the agreement on 29th January. The NI protocol, known as the “backstop,” is supposed to be temporary and valid unless it is replaced by a future relationship agreement that the parties will seek to conclude by December 31, 2020.
The Protocol foresees that the common travel area and North-South cooperation will continue to a large extent as before, as will the internal electricity market (so that some EU legislation on wholesale electricity markets will continue to apply). On 19 October, a statement was also submitted to Parliament indicating that a political agreement had been reached. The inclusion of the deal in the House of Commons ranged from cold to hostile and the vote was delayed by more than a month. Prime Minister May won a no-confidence motion against her own party, but the EU refused to accept further changes. This briefing note examines in detail the Withdrawal Agreement negotiated between the EU and the UK and concluded on 14 November 2018. It was endorsed by eu member states and the EU government at a special European Council summit on 25 November, and the British Prime Minister promoted it in the UK Parliament and across the country. The agreement has been debated in detail several times in Parliament and voted on three times. But the House of Commons did not approve it. A second Extension of Article 50 has extended the withdrawal date until 31 October 2019, but once again the UK faces the possibility of leaving the EU without a deal if that deal or any other deal is not ratified by the UK and the EU.